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Criminal Background Check
Health testing is a very special category of testing required by some employers. Controversial, but sometimes necessary, heath testing verifies an applicant's ability to perform a physically difficult task or work in an extreme environment. For instance, a deep sea salvages diving job or the job of an astronaut. A true example of a physical ineligibility was when an applicant was being considered for the job of a commercial color-proofing specialist and was tested to have deuteranomaly or green colorblindness.
Health/Life Insurance Testing
Many employer's insurance companies require a new employee to declare any preexisting health conditions, and/or have a physical examination to establish his or her state of health for the purpose of determining the terms and conditions of insurability.
Talent Assessment Testing
Many employers looking to fill a job that requires a very specific skill set will test an applicant's requisite knowledge in a specialized area. These tests sometimes take the form of a written examination, or in the case of illustrators and designers they may involve the completion of a mock assignment.
Behavioral Trait Testing
Employers use tests to determine the personality of prospective employees and to predict behavioral tendencies. These tests attempt to indicate an applicant’s dependability, integrity, receptiveness, safety, etc.
Interpersonal Trait Testing
Interpersonal testing is used to indicate how an applicant will interact and work with others; how he or she is likely to communicate with individuals and within a group situation, both with fellow employees and customers.
Language Proficiency Testing
In the US, knowledge of the English language is tested pertaining to verbal and written communication. Proficiency with grammar, spelling, and vocabulary are tested as well.
The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
The EEOC provides governance over all employment hiring practices in the US. With regard to pre-employment testing, the EEOC has no objection to an employer using testing to determine qualified job applicants as long as the testing does not violate Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Briefly stated, the Act prohibits testing or any other applicant screening process that is performed for the purpose of intentional discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.